Enhanced Responsive Web Design: RWD++



Luca Corbo - Sr. Software Engineer @ ScientiaMobile.com

Google I/O Extended 2017 - Naples - Italy

Source: https://vignette1.wikia.nocookie.net/onceuponatime8042/images/4/4e/113Book.png

1990

Source: http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html

1998

Source: https://web.archive.org

2017

Show me the code!

Everything changes!

Not only the code...

1980s Desktop & Mobile ...

IBM PC 5150

Motorola DynaTAC 8000X

Sources:
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DynaTAC8000X.jpg [CC BY-SA 3.0]
- https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_PC_5150.jpg [CC BY-SA 3.0]

... Nowadays

Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/brad_frost/7387823392/

Device Fragmentation (1/2)

Source: https://www.scientiamobile.com/page/movr-mobile-overview-report

Device Fragmentation (2/2)

Source: https://www.scientiamobile.com/page/movr-mobile-overview-report

Trends

Mobile Market Share (%)

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/jonarnes/rwd-myth-busting-topconf

Web Page Weight (kB)

Sources: https://www.slideshare.net/jonarnes/rwd-myth-busting-topconf

Image Transfer Size (kB)

Source: http://httparchive.org

Let's focus on the content

Total: 2602kB

Average Bytes per Page by Content Type - April 2017

Source: http://httparchive.org

Let's focus on the content images

Source: http://httparchive.org

The value chain

Source: https://www.slideshare.net/jonarnes/rwd-myth-busting-topconf

Mobile Friendly Approaches

  • In early 2015, Google changed their algorithms reflect the mobile friendliness of a website. The press dubbed this event "Mobilegeddon".
    Now, in 2016, we reran our survey of the top 10,000 websites.
  • In 2016, 79% of sites are "mobile friendly". This is a 7% increase over the 2015.
  • People think Responsive Web Design (RWD) is synonymous with "mobile friendly." However, less than 20% of mobile- friendly sites are using just RWD without javascript.
  • The web-performance movement (#webperf) is recognizing how RWD code can unnecessarily slow site performance.
  • To solve this, many sites combine server-side Device Detection – found in Adaptive and mDot – with RWD to reduce front-end payload, reduce JavaScript code, and improve speed.

Ok, we need a web page...

            
            <html>
              <head>
                <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width,initial-scale=1">
                <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet">
                <title>My Awesome Page</title>
              </head>
              <body>
                <p>Hi everyone!</p>
                <img src="awesome-photo.jpg">
              </body>
            </html>
            
            

... and make it responsive

Let's start with RWD!

Responsive images!

            
            <html>
              <head>
                <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width,initial-scale=1">
                <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet">
                <title>My Awesome Page</title>
              </head>
              <body>
                <p>Hi everyone!</p>
                <picture>
                    <source media="(min-width: 36em)"
                            srcset="awesome_photo_large.jpg  1024w,
                                    awesome_photo_medium.jpg 640w,
                                    awesome_photo_small.jpg  320w"
                            sizes="90vw">
                    <img src="awesome_photo.jpg" alt="Awesome photo!">
                </picture>
              </body>
            </html>
            
            

Can we optimize?

What about WebP?

  • A new image format for the Web introduced by Google
  • WebP lossless images are 26% smaller in size compared to PNGs.
  • WebP lossy images are 25-34% smaller than comparable JPEG images
  • Natively supported in Google Chrome and the Opera browser
Source: https://developers.google.com/speed/webp/

Responsive images with webp!

            
                <picture>
                    <source type="image/webp"
                            media="(min-width: 36em)"
                            srcset="awesome_photo_large.webp  1024w,
                                    awesome_photo_medium.webp 640w,
                                    awesome_photo_small.webp  320w"
                            sizes="90vw">
                    <source media="(min-width: 36em)"
                            srcset="awesome_photo_large.jpg  1024w,
                                    awesome_photo_medium.jpg 640w,
                                    awesome_photo_small.jpg  320w"
                            sizes="90vw">
                    <img src="awesome_photo.jpg" alt="Awesome photo!">
                </picture>
            
            

Wait... are 3 breakpoints enough for a responsive web site?

Responsive Web Design + Server Side Components (RESS) can help

Device Intelligence

  • Accurate, Real-Time Device Detection
  • Over 50,000 device profiles
  • 500+ capabilities
  • 11 languages supported
  • 7 server modules

Device Detection
server side

            
                // Create a new instance of WURFLEngine
                $wurfl_engine = new \ScientiaMobile\WURFL\WURFLEngine($container);
                // Get the device for the current request
                $device = $wurfl_engine->getDeviceForHttpRequest();
                // Get the value for a capability
                if ($device->getCapability("ux_full_desktop")) {
                    echo "This is a desktop device";
                } else {
                    echo "This is a mobile device";
                }
            
            

Device Detection
client side with WURFL.js

            
                // Load WURFL.js
                

                // Target Smartphone devices
                if (WURFL.is_mobile === true && WURFL.form_factor === "Smartphone") {
                    // targetSmartPhoneDevices();
                }
            
            

Client Hints in a nutshell

  1. Enable Client Hints adding the following meta tag to the HEAD section: <meta http-equiv="Accept-CH" content="DPR, Viewport-Width, Width">
  2. The browser will now append the DPR, Width and Viewport-Width headers to all subsequent requests generated from the HTML, including CSS, JavaScript and so on (with exception of Width, which, in practice, applies only to images
  3. The server will serve the optimal image variant based on its own set of policies.
  4. The browser render the optimized image
Source: https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2015/09/automating-resource-selection-with-client-hints

Responsive images with Client Hints!

            
            <html>
              <head>
                <meta http-equiv="Accept-CH" content="DPR, Viewport-Width, Width">
                <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width,initial-scale=1">
                <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet">
                <title>My Awesome Page</title>
              </head>
              <body>
                <p>Hi everyone!</p>
                <picture>
                    <img src="/awesome_photo.jpg"
                         sizes="90vw" alt="Awesome photo!">
                </picture>
              </body>
            </html>
            
            
  • Shipped in Chrome 46
  • Under consideration in Firefox and Edge

Image Optimization is Hard

  • Determine the appropriate format (vector vs. raster)
  • Determine the optimal encoding formats (jpeg, webp, etc.)
  • Determine the right compression settings (lossy vs. lossless)
  • Determine which metadata should be kept or stripped
  • Make multiple variants of each for each display + DPR resolution
  • ...
  • Account for user's network type, speed, and preferences
Source: https://developers.google.com/web/updates/2015/09/automating-resource-selection-with-client-hints

Automatic Resizing? Yes, please!

Manual vs Automatic

Responsive images with ImageEngine!

            
            <html>
              <head>
                
                <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width,initial-scale=1">
                <link href="style.css" rel="stylesheet">
                <title>My Awesome Page</title>
              </head>
              <body>
                <p>Hi everyone!</p>
                <picture>
                    <img src="http://<token>.imgeng.in/http://example.com/awesome_photo.jpg"
                         sizes="90vw" alt="Awesome photo!">
                </picture>
              </body>
            </html>
            
            

Page Benchmark

https://demo.imgeng.in/#!/summary/b8486288-bd0a-4495-a3f8-93127d7547c1

Benchmark and improve the quality of your page

Chrome Dev Tool https://developers.google.com/web/tools/chrome-devtools/
Lighthouse https://developers.google.com/web/tools/lighthouse/
Webpagetest https://www.webpagetest.org/
ImageEngine Tool https://demo.imgeng.in/

Still not convinced?

https://wpengine.com/blog/site-speed-infographic

Luca Corbo

Slides: https://lucacorbo.com/talks/rwd++

Twitter: @lucacorbo

Github: @lucor

Headquarter: Reston Virginia

Development Centers in US, Italy and India

WURFL, Wireless Universal Resource FiLe

FOSS Project 2001 thru 2011

Commercial in 2011 with ScientiaMobile

We are hiring!

ScientiaMobile.com

twitter.com/ScientiaMobile

github.com/wurfl

Thanks!